The life, times and thoughts of the Kiwi Skribbler... Leon "Junior" Harrison, Wellington, New Zealand
New Zealand Special Air Service
Historically I have featured pages on the British
Army Parachute Regiment, the US Army 75th Ranger Regiment, and the
Bundeswehr Gebirgsjäger mountain troops but retain this page as being
unique to New Zealand.
Ink Blot Aotearoa will not be forthcoming with any details relating to NZSAS or other current or historical operations which may contravene OPSEC (Operational Security). Do not ask and you will not be offended when information is not made available. Operators, their families and others concerned do not need to be put at risk for a story.
NZ Special Air Service
Video Game Studies
The New Zealand Special Air Service (NZSAS), like its Commonwealth cousins, is an Army based Special Forces unit primarily tasked with long range reconnaissance, direct action and counter terrorist (CT) missions.
The SAS is open to any serving member of the New Zealand military; Navy, Air force or Army, of which most understandably hail from the Army. Typically service of between two and four years is required before an applicant is considered for selection.
Training in the Special Air Service (SAS) units is considered to be some of the hardest in the world. This can been seen in the fact that, unlike many Special Forces whom are designed for specific operational roles, the Special Air Service are trained in a multitude of areas. As a result they are deployed in a greater diversity of operational responsibility. Counter-revolutionary Warfare (CRW), Airborne insertions, Maritime, Indigenous recruitment and training, Combat Search and Rescue (CSAR) and Hostage rescue are all part of what this specialised force can be called to do, at a moments notice and anywhere in the country, or indeed, the South Pacific.
The New Zealand Special Air Service, along with other members of the New Zealand Army, have a superb reputation for producing some of the best Combat Trackers in the world. As a result Kiwi troops often teach these skills to the various US Special Operations Forces units and others around the world, including the British SAS and Australian SASR. Secondment to Australian and British SAS units, and other Special Forces units around the globe ensure that New Zealand personnel are well up with the play. It allows these forces and their counterparts to gain invaluable experience and exchange ideas and methods. World wide training gives realistic lessons in all types of terrain conditions which is essential for operational competence.
The dagger has been known to represent the sword of King Arthur, Excalibur, but in fact it represents the Sword of Damocles, while the wings represent the airborne nature of the unit. The universal motto of the SAS units is "Who Dares Wins".
In June 1955 it was decided that the New Zealand Army required an elite unit capable of specialist missions. Modeled on the British Special Air Service, NZSAS was quickly seen to be both effective and professional. The initial force was raised by Major Frank Rennie and was to operate under the British 22SAS in Malaya.
In April 1978 the 1st Ranger Squadron became known as 1st SAS Squadron when the training centre became a self-contained unit. Today the unit is known as 1st New Zealand Special Air Service Group (1st NZSAS Gp).
One third of the NZSAS are on rotation with the Amphibious Troop who train in maritime skills activities such as counter-terrorism, amphibious landings and beachhead recce (reconnaissance). An integral part of SAS training is that of airborne insertion and all methods thereof. Black Group is in the role of Counter Terrorist Warfare (CTW). Green Group work in the traditional field operations capacity of long range reconnaissance. Assistance to the New Zealand Police is provided in Counter Terrorism and Chemical Biological threat situations, training and Diplomatic Protection (DP) duties.
Alpine work on mountainous terrain and use of explosives is taught to a high degree. Linguist skills for specific operational requirements are taught as required. As New Zealand Defence Forces have no Marine component the NZSAS are called on to be very capable in maritime skills. This includes being able to make landings on some of the roughest coastline in the world.
Security and need for inconspicuous behaviour means that, while being aggressive is a part of some tasks, a humble demeanor is required of SAS personnel. Mental demands on SAS troopers in both training and operational capacities requires high intelligence and initiative on their part. Deep recce work often sees soldiers spending very long periods in a single spot gathering up battlefield intelligence which also requires a great deal of patience and self control.
Organisation consists of two Squadrons of three troops each; Amphibious, Mountain and Air, and a Headquarters element. It costs $39 million a year to train these elite Special Forces soldiers. Anyone who questions the need for their capabilities and the budget would seriously need to ask themselves perhaps only after they find themselves in the dire need of the unit's unique talents. Any reassessment would be too late. To this end about half the NZSAS total personnel of the Special Warfare Group spend some six months a year overseas.
In recent years there has been talk about the New Zealand Police taking over the role of Counter-terrorism. This proposition is considered extremely questionable by critics who use the Canadian example as a case in point. Failure of the Police to effectively perform Counter-terrorist roles brought about the formation of the current Special Forces unit there, Joint Task Force Two (JTF2). Much of the problem comes with the public perception were Police are in place to enforce the law. The extreme circumstances which invoke counter terrorist operations make this a difficult and complex condition indeed.
Many troubles, acts of terrorism, attempted assassinations and military actions have been avoided altogether simply through the knowledge of a small elite by those that might have perpetrated such crimes. Even in the most dire examples, units like the NZSAS are one of the best deterrents on hand.
Based in Papakura, outside of Auckland, the unit has returned there after having been stationed at Hobsonville Airbase.
The very arduous selection process has a success rate of approximately 10%. Even after being "badged", the probationary period can see further applicants returned to their original units.
The selection process is 14 days long. Preselection ensures that those wanting to take on the challenge have the necessary navigation skills required to even attempt SAS selection. Even on passing one of the world's hardest tests to enter one of the world's most elite of the Special Forces there is still a further 9 months of training, learning, taking in so much more information. Failure at any stage means being returned to their original unit.
Inside of two weeks two thirds of candidates are typically eliminated from the selection process. It is evident that the training is as much about mental toughness as it is physical, the need to carry on well beyond what you would physically be able to manage. This ensures that, operationally the SAS trooper can manage beyond the limits of conventional forces on tasks which call on very special people in the most arduous of conditions working in very small teams. Often there is no support.
Navigating over hard Waikato farmland at night is a key feature of the selection process, having to make it to key map references. This must be done at an average of 3 kilometers an hour. To be too slow means you're out. All this on limited food intake. All part of testing endurance and determination while partaking in these solo efforts.
The Jerry Can test finds the candidates carrying a 25kg Jerry Can filled to the brim over the Kaipara sand dunes. There is always an extra can which has each candidate taking turns to carry two at once.
Despite making good times and performing well some simply give it away, deciding that the SAS is not what they want. A great deal of the difficulty comes from not knowing when a given exercise is going to end. You must carry on regardless, if you want to make it.
Surviving candidates are thrown head first into a Escape and Evasion test where SAS staff hunt them down relentlessly. This tests the resolve of the men to their limits and beyond. "Hare and Hound" is relegated within a specific area and if the candidate is caught outside that area, they are put back 10 kilometres. Because this test must be competed within a given time, including navigating through very dense forest, no one wants to go outside the set boundary. Pure exhaustion might inadvertently lead to that anyway.
To finish there is a 60km trek through Woodhall Forest, reputed to be the hardest part of the whole ordeal. Even after completion some who have made it to the end are not selected. They are deemed to immature or do not fit the psychological profile required.
Once badged the NZSAS trooper wears the coveted sand beret, like that of the British SAS or Australian SASR. This has only been instituted since around 1986, where previously, rather than the sand coloured beret, the red beret with SAS badge was worn. This is significant in New Zealand where there is no Airborne unit, which, traditionally world wide airborne personnel wear the red beret. The sand coloured beret represents those founding days in the deserts of North Africa over 60 years ago. Airborne personnel traditionally wear the red beret. The sand coloured beret represents those founding days in the deserts of North Africa over 60 years ago.
The Special Forces of the New Zealand Army consists of the following sub-units:
1 New Zealand SAS Group (Papakura Camp)
Engineer Operations Troop (EOT)
As is common with world Special Forces in general, the NZSAS is no exception to the rule of having access to most tools of the trade. Getting to play with the fancy gear is an advantage of such service but when it comes down to it New Zealand prides itself in the concept that the man makes the gear not the other way around. Scopes and other added features are often included in weapons loadouts for increased effectiveness. Unlike regular units, the NZSAS member is permitted a certain amount of personal choose and flexibility in their kit.
The US manufactured M16 Rifle is popular with the NZSAS as it is with other SAS units around the world. The Steyr AUG is the New Zealand Army standard issue rifle and this is also seen in service depending on requirements. The older M16A1 with its fully automatic sear is also used. Due to history this rifle, regardless of generation is referred to as the Armalite. The severely cut down version, the Colt Commando has also seen use, as has the more recent M4 Carbine. One weapon appreciated for its power is the SLR Battle Rifle (chambered for 7.62mm NATO), on issue to the New Zealand Army before the Steyr, alongside the M16.
Silenced Sterling SMG (L34A1)
This is the silenced version of the very famous British Sterling SMG. It is very quiet and very robust. Though a bulky weapon compared to modern designs it is very reliable and still has a place in the NZSAS armoury for its very specialised role. Primarily the L34 is intended for eliminating personnel targets when stealth is of the up most importance. This helps a covert force avoid detection and also avoids unwanted hostile encounters. The L34 was used by the British Royal Marines own Special Forces, the Special Boat Squadron (SBS) during the Falklands.
The very popular MP5 submachine gun design from Germany is used in many operational capacities and is liked by many of the world's Special Forces for its extreme accuracy. The NZSAS is no exception. Different configurations allow for different needs, including the MP5K, which is particularly compact and able to be carried concealed for the VIP Bodyguard role. A suppressed version is present also. The 9mm pistol ammunition the MP5 uses makes it ideal for counter terrorism work where a will aimed burst is still lethal while not presenting a danger by penetrating walls and other structures, thereby having the potential to injure non-combatants.
Known in other services as the Minimi or C9 this Light Machine gun, designed in Belgium is used by many forces around the world. Using the same small round as the M16 makes for good logistic sense and also other than the standard belt (held in a plastic box) of 200 rounds the weapon also accepts M16 magazines. A gunner may carry a few such magazines for an emergency. With a range of 600 metres and capable of sustained fire rates the M249 is a good accurate weapon for the modern battlefield.
M203 40mm Grenade Launcher
The M203 is attached to the bottom of the M16 rifle. This 40mm grenade launcher gives the SAS unit, considering its typically small size, very formidable firepower. Various ammunition types allow for tactical flexibility, including; high explosive (HE), smoke and buckshot (which works like a shotgun on steroids). Less than lethal ammunition such as Tear Gas (CS) can also be fired from these weapons for riot control or seizure of criminals. A major tasking for the NZSAS is recce work and this weapon gives the unit the capability to counter-attack very effectively if they are compromised. But all efforts are made to insure the need is not required with first rate fieldcraft. The M203 below is mounted on the M4 Carbine, a cut down version of the M16A2.
M72 LAW (Light Anti-tank Weapon)
The M72 is a single shot, disposable anti-armour weapon. With the advent of more effective armoured vehicles the 66mm HEAT round is much less effective than it once was for its original intended role. But still, the M72 is very effective in the bunker buster and anti-personal role and against lighter armoured vehicles. Once fired the left over tube is discarded, or carried out if operationally required. Either way each launcher including its integral rocket is very light.
The NZSAS are trained in the use of many other weapons for complete battlefield adaptability including mortars and Anti-tank weapons such as the 84mm Carl Gustav. Sniper rifles and other firearms are used for various tactical roles. Experts in Close Quarter Battle (CQB), the SAS are trained to a very high degree in the use of pistols, the Browning High Power and Sig Sauer P226 are typical examples. These are critical for self defence and for Close Protection (CP) work. Claymore mines for Anti-personnel work and constructing hasty ambushes are used, as are shotguns in close jungle and bush country. Foreign weapons are taught to ensure competency in an operational situation should the need arise to utalise them.
Taranaki Bush Rangers
The first Special Forces of New Zealand were raised during the Maori wars to counter the Maori in the rugged bush country that was unique to the country. The first of these forces was the Taranaki Bush Rangers raised in 1863. They were charged with searching out Maori war parties, acting as scouts and protecting the communications networks of the English forces.
Though the Taranaki Bush Rangers were a smaller unit of some 50 men, the Forest Rangers was the first company sized unit, commanded by Major W. Jackson in the same year. Later in 1863, Major G. F. Von Tempsky raised a second company. The guerilla warfare tactics employed were highly effective. These methods are still used today suitably modified to work on the modern battlefield. The passing of the Armed Constabulary Act of 1867 put an end to the Colonial Defence Force once the fighting was essentially at a conclusion. The Special Forces were disbanded on 22 October 1867.
[ Forest Ranger badge ]
World War Two
Long Range Patrol / Long Range Desert Group / Special Air Service
A precursor to the LRDG was the Long Range Patrol (LRP). Formed in Egypt in 1940, it was made up of three British officers and 50 New Zealanders. Tasked with reconnaissance missions rapid success found the unit growing in strength. British and Rhodesian patrols were soon added. Out of this the even more ambitious Long Range Desert Group (LRDG) was created.
The Long Range Desert Group (LRDG) proceeded the formation of the SAS and was charged with long range recce and raiding missions against the Germans and Italians during the Second World War. Started by David Sterling, the unit was originally called Detachment L, to be renamed 1st Special Air Service Regiment in 1942. The founder was recovering from a parachuting accident at the time. New Zealanders played a major role in the LRDG and this was recognised by their being referred to as the "Kiwi Scorpions", with the Scorpion being the symbol of the LRDG.
The LRDG consisted of three squadrons; New Zealand, Rhodesian, and Guards (UK). In the early days of the SAS they were reliant on the LRDG for their navigation skills and for Escape and Evasion (E&E) as the SAS lacked the desert skills at this stage. The SAS was to perform direct action missions while the LRDG focused on recce and intelligence gathering missions.
An wholly independent New Zealand unit under Captain Wilder (KIA) charged with mobile reconnaissance operations was responsible for providing a route through the previously impassable Western Desert. This allowed 2(NZ) Division and the 8th Army to nearly cut off Rommel's retreat from El Alamein. This route became known as "Wilder's Gap".
The SAS grew in size until there were several other Allied components, including French and Belgium.
From the outset the founding unit was given the motto "Who Dares Wins" which has stood to this day.
Raids were typically performed with Jeeps carrying extra water and fuel for long range missions and armed to the teeth with Vickers K machine guns, Lewis guns. By the end of the North African campaign the SAS had destroyed over 400 enemy aircraft. The SAS Brigade as a whole inflicted more than twenty times as many casualties as they suffered in the operations of 1944/45. They took about 5000 German prisoners.
[ LRDG emblem ]
Malaya and Borneo
New Zealand Special Air Service
In 1956 the NZSAS Squadron was attached to the British SAS in Malaya. It fought against Malaysian Communists with great success. Asides fighting these guerrilla forces they were also charged with collecting up and training villagers to fight as well, in a similar fashion as US Green Berets did during Vietnam a decade on. In over a dozen major engagements only one NZSAS trooper was killed. Soon after the unit was disbanded, having been operationally replaced by an Infantry Battalion. Still, it did not take long for the SAS unit to be reformed.
The NZSAS also had the job of countering Indonesian Communist insurgents in Borneo. Here in the harsh jungle environments the Kiwis' tracking skills were called upon. The New Zealanders were charged with long range reconnaissance and ambushing. Later operations targeted Indonesian SOF personnel specifically. British and Australian forces were also involved in this conflict. "Hearts and Minds" operations were very effective here and a major element of Special Forces operations.
[ Malaya era "Wings" ]
Based in Nui Dat in Vietnam the New Zealand Special Air Service 4th Platoon served under Australian command in November 1968, attached to the Australian SAS Regiment. Each tour was of a year's duration and included several platoons' involvement. Here NZSAS was named 1st Ranger Squadron. Most tasks involved ambush of enemy forces and doing recce missions.
NZSAS also worked in conjunction with US Army Special Forces. Previous experiences in Malaya and Borneo stood the unit in good stead for the jungle environment. In Vietnam, the Kiwi and Aussie SAS were known as "Ma Rung" or Jungle Ghosts.
1 NZ Special Air Service Group
Extracted from an article written by me for Global SpecOps.
Currently troopers of the NZSAS are deployed in Afghanistan where their skills in tracking are being used to good effect in hunting down members of the Al Qaeda terrorist network. The US has always been keen for New Zealand support in the past and the current War on Terrorism is no exception. New Zealand SAS soldiers have had extensive experience in the Middle East including fighting Islamic fundamentalist groups at the invitation of the Sheik of Oman.
Missions in various capacities have existed in a on going fashion since the the 70's, through to the Gulf War and to the present day. More recently, A 'clash' with Abu Sayyaf in the Philippines ended in another successful contact for the NZSAS. Currently NZSAS personnel are working alongside Australian SASR soldiers in the Anzac tradition. It can be deduced they are also working alongside their US counterparts, though, like in Vietnam most operations will be independent, and in smaller units. Initial deployment of 30 NZSAS troops were provided logistical support from two RNZAF C130 Hercules'. Undoubtedly as history has shown taskings will include training of local Anti-Taliban Afghan forces, deep reconnaissance and, where required, offensive operations. Operating in traditionally small self-sufficient units the NZSAS has been operating covertly at very high altitudes, above Al Qaeda positions. They guided in some 1500 Allied troops during 'Operation Anaconda'.
US Presidential Unit Citation
In December 2004 the NZSAS was awarded a US Presidential Unit Citation for their involvement in the war in Afghanistan from October 2001 to March 2002. The citation is for extraordinary heroism in action against an armed enemy in extremely difficult and hazardous conditions.
Third Rotation to Afghanistan
The third deployment of 1st NZSAS Group elements departed for Afghanistan by way of two US C17 Globemasters in early June of 2005. With them they took 11 of the new Pinzgauer (Special Operations) 6x6 vehicles. Again these troops will be operating in the harsh and mountainous regions along the Pakistani border. Their missions include direct action taskings and traditional long range reconnaissance missions on behalf of allied forces.
The six month tour will include providing security for the upcoming elections in September. An increase in manpower of some twenty men, this deployment has demonstrated both the needs and expertise of NZSAS on the ground in Afghanistan and is close to half the force's total manpower. New Zealand's contribution to the region includes a Provincial Reconstruction Team (PRT) and is known as Operation Ariki.
From 3-12 June 2005 saw the 1 NZSAS Gp and the NZSAS Association celebrating 50 years of the New Zealand Special Air Service. The gatherings included representatives from the US, UK, Canadian and Australian Special Forces communities. Guests included General Sir Peter de la Billiere. His experiences and service in the British SAS has been well documented. He reflected on service alongside the NZSAS during Malaya and Borneo.
Commanding Officer, Lt Col Peter Kelly, MNZM, presented the Governor General, Hon Dame Silvia Cartwright with a 50th Jubilee plaque. Demonstrations were held including a helo insertion and recce. Vehicles were on display during the open day on 11 June. The Jubilee closed with a memorial service on the final day.
[ NZSAS 2004 - collar pins and beret badge ]
SAS soldier awarded Victoria Cross
On 02 July 2007 New Zealand finds out as a nation that Corporal Willie Apiata has been awarded the Victoria Cross for actions in Afghanistan back in June of 04. It came after he carried his wounded patrol commander, under heavy fire, to safety after their vehicle was hit in an ambush. After that, he joined in a successful counter-attack. This is the first time since World War Two that the VC has been bestowed upon a Kiwi.
In April 2008 we learn that Corporal Apiata has decided to gift his Victoria Cross to the Squadron so that it will remain in the country indefinitely.
[ Victoria Cross ]
Other Special Air Service Units
British Army Special Air Service (SAS)
The British SAS is the original SAS where the concept was born. Like the other units that bear the name they have a long and impressive history of combat effectiveness and are very well respected by both foreign Special and military forces, and those that they have faced.
In the Oman a nine man BATT SAS unit lead by Captain Mike Kealy managed to hold back 250 Adoo rebels at the battle of Mirbat in July 1972. NZSAS members have been involved in security operations for Oman in varying capacities over the years. World wide exposure to the Regiment came in 1980 with the assault on the Iranian Embassy. Only one terrorist survived the assault. NZSAS members were involved in this operation. The troubles in Northern Ireland have seen the SAS in various operations, mostly Intelligence gathering.
In 1982 during the Falklands war the British SAS performed their classic operations of deep reconnaissance and raiding. The raid of Pebble Island on 14 May was completed with the destruction of 11 grounded Argentine aircraft. This operation was combined with personnel of the Royal Marines Commando Special Forces known as the Special Boat Squadron (SBS). It was a SAS soldier who was first to fire a US made Stinger missile launcher in anger, during this conflict.
In 1991 the SAS played its part in the Gulf War. The Regiment's efforts prevented Israel from entering the war. The mission involving the elimination SCUD missiles has been hugely published since.
Most recently the SAS has been involved in operations in Afghanistan. With recent exercises in Oman, secondments and historical reflection it is reasonable to assume that New Zealand and Australian SAS personnel are also involved with these deployments.
[ SAS - Falklands ]
Australia Special Air Service Regiment (SASR)
This is the Australian Special Air Service, New Zealand's closest neighbour. Under Major W. Gook the 1st Special Air Service Company (Royal Australian Regiment) was formed in 1957. Initially a company the unit was raised to a Regiment in 1964 consisting of three Sabre Squadrons, a Training Squadron and a Headquarters. B Squadron is the Tactical Assault Group (TAG) responsible for Anti-terrorist duties, while the Offshore Assault Team (OAT) is maritime orientated in the same primary role.
Experts in the desert arena Aussie SAS spend a lot of training time together sharing experience and ideas with the Kiwis. Both New Zealand and Australian SAS personnel spend time with their British cousins and receiving them on secondment. More recent joint operations between SASR and NZSAS include deployments to the Middle East, and deployment to East Timor, where they where to operate with the Royal Marines Special Forces, the SBS.
[ SASR and guide ]
C (Rhodesian) Squadron - 22nd Special Air Service
For various political reasons the British empire elected to abandon the Rhodesians and, as a result their self-sufficiency had to be asserted. The Rhodesian SAS first saw action against the Communist guerrillas in Malaya. But out of this independence at home came the need to mount COIN (Counter Insurgency operations) back home against two primary forces, the ZIPRA (Zimbabwe People's Revolutionary Army) and the ZANLA (Zimbabwe African National Liberation Army).
Units of the Rhodesian military fought back, including the Rhodesian Light Infantry (RLI), the Selous Scouts, and the Rhodesian SAS. This highly efficient force was able to counter insurgencies from neighboring Mozambique and inflict heavy causalities against the guerillas. Members of the Rhodesian SAS included Peter Walls who later became commander of the Rhodesian Security Forces, and Ron Reid-Daly, who became leader of the Selous Scouts. After this period in history many members continued to fight in the ranks of the South African Defence Forces.
Robert Mugabe, little known at the time, and both a Marxist terrorist and a guerrilla leader, was to become leader in the new government after all party elections were run in 1980, after Britain and the US pressed for a ceasefire in December of 1979. Mugabe still remains in power to this day.
[ Selous Scouts patrol ]
French and Belgium SAS
During World War Two, both France and Belgium had units within the SAS Brigade. David Sterling, along with one Jock Lewes, an Australian, and officer in the Welsh Guards, got the forerunner to the modern Special Air Service underway. These units were disbanded at war's end. The modern day French Army 1er RPIMa (Regiment de Parachutistes d'Infanterie de Marine), have similar basis of training and operational applications to the SAS and their roots are laid in the wartime French SAS units.
Modern day Gespecialiseerde Verkenningsploegen Long Range Reconnaissance Patrol units of Belgium have their roots in the wartime Belgium SAS Regiment, under the aforementioned Brigade. 1st Parachute Battalion, Para Commando Brigade have direct lineage to the wartime unit and as such members wear the SAS dagger cap badge on their red paratrooper berets.
The British Special Air Service, in recent years, has probably gained more publicity than they would have preferred. Mostly coming from the stream of publications from former members who have felt the need to announce their involvement for personal reasons. For good or bad this has put this force in the public eye and made it, in some senses a household name. This has filtered down to the New Zealand and Australian counterparts to a lesser degree.
Interest has grown quickly and much unwanted exposure and misinformation has had a mixed impact. Most recent deployments bring the SAS units once again into the limelight, with exercises in Oman and action in Afghanistan. This, the area of the world where, arguably those of the Special Air Service units are the most ideal for the job.
For its 5 million population, and two regular battalions, the all white Rhodesian Light Infantry and the black (with white officers) Rhodesian African Rifles (RAR), and a squadron of SAS, New Zealand can be numerically likened to Rhodesia in those times. New Zealand, being an island nation rather than being land-locked, would be best served by a Marine Commando type Special Force to counter its major gap in maritime counter terrorist capabilities in a way that the Selous Scouts in their land-locked situation of Rhodesia did so well. This would be wise for a country so dependant on sea lanes and makes sense both economically and militarily for a country so remote.
Frank Rennie, Regular Soldier - A Life in the New Zealand Army, Endeavour Press,
ISBN : 0 86481 170 5
W.D. Baker, Dare to Win : The Story of the New Zealand Special Air Service, Battery Press,
Mike Coburn, Soldier Five, Mission Vista Ltd,
ISBN: 0 476 00090 4
'Soldier Five' deals with the events of the already well publicised Bravo Two Zero mission in the Gulf. This is from the viewpoint of the New Zealander in that operation, known as 'Mark the Kiwi' in Andy McNab's book.
Ron Crosby, NZSAS: The First Fifty Years, Penguin
is the first and only official history of the New Zealand Special
Forces. It details back to Malaya to the present in Afghanistan, and
includes much on the LRDG and World War Two era SAS of which New
Zealanders were a significant part.
Global SpecOps - details on some of the world's Special Operations forces
Global SpecOps NZSAS - author's article on NZSAS
Operation URIC - Gaza, Mozambique (1-7 September 1979)
C (Rhodesia) Squadron - 22 Special Air Service Regiment
SouvenirSAS - French SAS during WW2(primarly in French)
Kommando - The Commandoes of the German Armed Forces
US Central Command - information on the War on Terror
[ The Swiss Model ]
Ink Blot Aotearoa